The only permanent way to treat eyelid ptosis (drooping eyelids) is with surgery. There are several possible techniques. The principle of ptosis surgery is to shorten the muscle that lifts the eyelid called the levator muscle and sometimes the second muscle which lifts the lid, Muller’s muscle (as seen on the diagram below).
With age there can be a loss of fat in the upper cheeks contributing to the cheek muscles and mid-face to sag. This results in hollowness below the eyes, giving a tired, aged appearance. When this affects the area between the lower lid and the cheek it is often referred to as a tear trough hollow or an orbito-malar groove. Tear trough hollows may present in patients who also have wrinkles, Dermatochalasis, ageing skin etc. All of these conditions can be treated to improve the final result, using a combined approach of medical rejuvenation with filler (Restylane products), biostimulation (Sculptra) and botulinum toxin A injection, skin care and oculoplastic (eyelid) surgery.
Pigmentation means coloring. Skin pigmentation disorders affect the color of your skin. Your skin gets its color from a pigment called melanin. Special cells in the skin make melanin. When these cells become damaged or unhealthy, it affects melanin production. Some pigmentation disorders affect just patches of skin. Others affect your entire body.
If your body makes too much melanin, your skin gets darker. Pregnancy, Addison’s disease, and sun exposure all can make your skin darker. If your body makes too little melanin, your skin gets lighter. Vitiligo is a condition that causes patches of light skin. Albinism is a genetic condition affecting a person’s skin. A person with albinism may have no color, lighter than normal skin color, or patchy missing skin color. Infections, blisters and burns can also cause lighter skin.
Ageing skin changes are related to many contributing factors such as genetic predisposition, diet and smoking. The greatest single factor is sun exposure, clearly seen when comparing areas of the body that are regularly exposed to the sun with areas that are covered.