The retina is the light-sensitive layer at the back of the eye that detects light and converts light into an electrical impulse which passes to the brain via the optic nerve. There are special parts of the retina, that’s the central retina, called the macula, which is dedicated to provide central vision, so recognising faces in detail, colour vision and central field of vision.
The (peripheral) retina is helpful in navigation and night vision. The cells of the peripheral retina that are the most plentiful are the rod cells which subserve night vision and peripheral vision and the central retina is rich in cone cells which provide central visual function. Just in front of the retina you have the vitreous gel which after birth has no important role other that filling that cavity. Its role is mainly in the womb in retinal/ocular development.
Professor Michel Michaelides is a Professor of Ophthalmology at Clinica London. His special expertise is in Retinal Diseases, including Inherited Retinal Diseases, Age Related Macular Degeneration, Diabetic Retinopathy and Maculopathy, and Retinal Vein Occlusions. He has over 16 years experience in treating people with eye problems just like you, and has published extensively in scientific journals about diabetic eye disease, age-related macular degeneration and inherited eye disease, and also lead multiple clinical trials investigating novel therapies. At Clinica London, he is responsible for Retinal Diseases both in adults and children.