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Age-Related Macular Degeneration Treatment London

At a glance:

Age-Related Macular Degeneration Treatment  



Blurred or distorted central vision, blind spots, difficulty seeing in low light and adapting to bright light. Loss of colour vision and central visual definition, e.g. when looking at faces.


Diagnosed through a comprehensive eye examination that focuses on the macula.


Treatment will depend on the type and severity of the condition, it may include eye injections of anti-VEGF in case of wet AMD. Other macular treatments are emerging which are showing promise. The experienced medical retinal Consultant will advise on the best treatment for you.

anatomy of the eye

Our clinic operates as a private surgery and is not affiliated with the NHS (National Health Service)


Age-related macular Degeneration (AMD) is a common eye condition affecting people over the age of 50. It is a progressive disease that damages the macula – the part of the eye responsible for clear central vision and colour. 

This condition causes blurred or distorted vision, and in severe cases, can lead to total central blindness afterwards. The peripheral vision remains unaffected but fine central visual detail and colour vision are affected. AMD affects the patient’s ability to read, to recognise faces and to drive. 



Different types of age-related macular degeneration

Different types of AMD are combined from genetic and environmental factors.

You may have a greater predisposition to one type of AMD based on your genetics. If there is a family history of AMD, you have a greater chance of developing AMD.

Lifestyle factors can also contribute to this predisposition, such as:

  • smoking
  • poor diet
  • lack of exercise
  • diabetes
  • hypertension
  • overweight




Wet age-related macular degeneration (Wet AMD)

Wet or neovascular AMD is less common than dry AMD but it’s more severe and rapid in its effect. It occurs when abnormal blood vessels behind the retina start to grow and leak fluid or blood in the region of the macula. Fortunately, it is treatable or can often be stabilised.

Symptoms of wet AMD include:

  • a sudden decrease in central vision
  • distorted vision (straight lines may appear wavy or crooked)
  • a blind spot in the centre of your field of vision
  • colour brightness may appear diminished

Dry age-related macular degeneration (Dry AMD)

Dry or atrophic AMD affects the macula, causing damage over time and leading to a gradual loss of central vision. It is an advanced type of AMD where there is a complete loss of retinal macula elements. Dry AMD interferes with recognising peoples´ faces, and seeing fine detail and colours.  

It is caused by the accumulation of small yellow deposits called drusen under the retina and associated retinal atrophy. Dry AMD is the most common form of AMD, with dry form accounting for around 90% of all cases. Dry AMD is more difficult to treat or stabilise than wet AMD. 

side view of elderly woman eye

What causes age-related macular degeneration?

The macula is responsible for sharp detailed central vision and colour, and is necessary for activities such as reading, driving, and recognising faces. AMD stimulates progressive deterioration of the cells in the macula, which can lead to vision loss in the affected eye.

Age is the leading cause of AMD.

Other contributing factors to developing ageing macular degeneration include:

  • smoking
  • obesity
  • diabetes and hypertension
  • a diet lacking in vitamins
  • history of UV light exposure

What are the symptoms?

The symptoms of AMD can vary depending on the type and stage of the disease. The following are some common symptoms of AMD:

  • blurred vision
  • distorted vision
  • loss of central vision
  • difficulty seeing fine details
  • slower dark adaptation when going from light to dark
  • need for brighter light when reading or doing close work
  • decreased intensity or brightness of colours





AMD affects people over the age of 50. The risk of developing AMD increases with age, and it is more common in women than men. Other factors that can increase the risk of AMD include: 

  • family history of the condition 
  • smoking 
  • obesity 
  • high blood pressure 
  • cardiovascular disease 
  • light skin and eye colour 
  • prolonged exposure to sunlight 
  • poor diet and diabetes 


If you believe you are at risk of AMD, schedule regular eye examinations with one of our Medical Retinal Ophthalmologists to detect any changes in your vision, monitor the progression of early AMD, and receive appropriate treatment. 

close up eye of a patient


Retinal scans 

AMD can be diagnosed through a comprehensive eye examination that focuses on the macula.  

Retinal scans using the special retina scanner called ocular coherence tomography (OCT) are used to assess new vessels growing into the retina, macular oedema, macular haemorrhages, etc. At Clinica London, we have the Heidelberg Spectralis OCT with OCT A, wide field OCT and perform other specific scans on selected patients. We also perform wide-field colour retinal scans using the Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscope (SLO). 

At Clinica London, the four retinal care ophthalmic specialists regularly perform OCT and SLO scans on all retinal patients to help plan AMD treatment. 

Medical Retinal Consultant Ophthalmologists

  • Professor Michel Michaelides 
  • Ms Stacey Strong 
  • Ms Evgenia Anikina 
  • Mr Julian Robins

The retinal specialist with the help of the ophthalmic technician will perform an OCT and take photographs (SLO) of the back of your eye to confirm the diagnosis and determine the correct treatment.  

Additional tests 

You may be required to take additional tests to gather further information about your macula lesion type, location, and extent of sub-retinal bleeding. These are done with our Spectralis OCT. 




How is age-related macular degeneration treated? 

Depending on the AMD type you are diagnosed with, you will receive different treatments. 

Wet age-related macular degeneration treatment 

Treatments available for wet AMD include: 

  • Anti-VEGF injections: These injections block a protein called vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which causes abnormal blood vessels to grow. Anti-VEGF injections can help reduce leakage and improve vision. 
  • Several Anti-VEGF drugs and other treatments are available 
  • Low threshold macular laser: Suitable for neovascular vessel treatment to stop leaking and resultant reduction of central vision. Requires assessment with FFA and ICGA to decide suitability. 

Dry age-related macular degeneration treatment 

Treatments will not cure dry AMD, but they help slow down the progression of the disease. These include: 

  • Taking supplements: Certain vitamins and minerals, such as vitamin C, vitamin E, zinc, and copper, may help slow down the progression of dry AMD.  
  • Lifestyle changes: Eating a healthy diet, exercising regularly, and avoiding smoking may also help slow down the progression of dry AMD. 
  • Special Light Treatment: various light treatments are emerging which show promise from early trials for stabilising and even giving some improvement in Dry AMD. 

Expected results 

Treatment for age-related macular degeneration (AMD) aims to prevent further vision loss rather than restore lost vision. 

Despite best efforts, it is possible that you may not respond well to treatment, and your vision loss may continue to progress. 

Recovery and aftercare 

The recovery time for AMD varies depending on the stage and severity of the disease, as well as the treatment option being used. If the condition is detected early and treated promptly, the recovery time may be faster than if it is caught in the later stages. 

Treatments such as injections of anti-VEGF drugs or photodynamic therapy (light treatment) may require multiple sessions over several months in order to first stabilise and secondarily, improve vision in many patients. 


After you receive treatment for AMD, focus on aftercare to ensure the best possible outcome and prevent any complications. 

Follow-up Appointments 

Attend all follow-up appointments with your eye doctor to monitor your progress and determine if any additional treatment is necessary. Diagnostic macula tests will be performed at each visit. 


If you received any medication prescriptions, take them as directed and notify your doctor of any side effects or changes in your vision. 

Eye Protection 

Keep your eyes protected from sunlight by wearing sunglasses or a hat with a brim. Avoid bright light and high glare situations. 

Healthy Diet 

Eat a healthy diet rich in nutrients, especially those that support eye health. Foods that are high in antioxidants, vitamins A, C, and E, and omega-3 fatty acids are particularly beneficial. 

Physical Activity 

Engage in regular physical activity, to stimulate circulation and maintain overall health. 

Smoking Cessation  

If you smoke, it is important to quit to reduce your risk of further vision loss. 

a patient doing eye examination



Ms Hannah Dunbar is the Low Vision Optometrist who will advise on optimising vision in patients with macula damage from AMD.

Referral is via one of the Medical Retinal Consultant Specialists. 

Professor Michel Michaelides

Professor Michel Michaelides

Professor of Ophthalmology
Medical Retina & Inherited Retinal Disease Specialist

Ms Evgenia Anikina 1

Ms Evgenia Anikina

Consultant Ophthalmic Surgeon
Cataract, Surgical Vitreoretinal (VR) and Medical Retina Specialist

Mr Julian Robins 5

Mr Julian Robins

Consultant Ophthalmic Surgeon
Cataract, Vitreoretinal (VR) and Medical Retina Specialist

Ms Hannah Dunbar

Ms Hannah Dunbar

Consultant Optometrist
Low Vision Optometry Specialist

Ms Stacey Strong 3

Ms Stacey Strong

Consultant Ophthalmic Surgeon
Cataract & Medical Retina Specialist

Our clinic operates as a private surgery and is not affiliated with the NHS (National Health Service)



TreatmentPrice range
AMD Treatment£785-£1250 
Consultation FeesNot Included


Please note that the prices mentioned above are subject to change based on the type of procedure and individual patient. Each Anti-VEGF rug has a separate individual price. 

For a more accurate quote with a full breakdown of treatment costs, we recommend booking a consultation with us so that the quote is tailored to your specific problem. 


Initial consultation fees are not included.

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) FAQ 

Both types of AMD can cause significant vision loss. Wet macular degeneration is generally considered to be worse due to its more rapid progression and potential for permanent vision loss. With the wet form of AMD, you have less time to discover and treat the condition. However, wet AMD has more potential for stabilising treatments and improvement of vision than dry AMD. IN contrast Dry EMD is regarded as untreatable but newer emerging treatments have been shown to stabilise Dry AMD. 

On average, patients with age-related macular degeneration require 8-10 anti-VEGF eye injections in the first year of treatment. Afterwards, the frequency of injections can be reduced to possibly 4 or 6, depending on the patient’s response. Each patient´s needs are different depending on their exact problem and degree of Wet AMD. 

Yes, low threshold macular laser is suitable for some patient´s with Wet AMD where there are tiny new vessels under the macula which can be closed by the laser. This stops them leaking and impairing central vision. 

The risk of complications from these injections is low. Some possible risks include infection, bleeding, and retinal detachment. However, these risks are rare and the benefits of the injections typically outweigh the risks. 

There are 3 possible tests you will be required to do.  

The main test is optical coherence tomography (OCT). This test uses light to take cross-sections of the retina, giving an insight into the retinal layers in great detail. It diagnoses retinal disease at an earlier stage and determines how patients may respond to treatment, including injections into the eye. It is also used to determine how many injections are needed and how often they are required. 

Scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (SLO) is a broad field colour photography of your retina, including autofluorescence of your macula and choroid. 

The third test used is angiography. At Clinica London, these tests are performed by injecting a fluorescent dye into a vein in the back of the hand, which circulates through the body to the blood vessels in the retina. This allows the medical retinal consultants to visualise and document the blood supply in the retina and check for any leakage from the blood vessels. The specialist retinal Consultant can then direct treatment to the areas of leakage if necessary, using low threshold laser. 

Award Winning Clinic in London

Clinica London is a leading ophthalmology and dermatology medical clinic. It has a sense of passion for helping patients. The clinic’s consultants are highly skilled professionals who have received British, European, and international awards in their respective fields. Clinica is honest and offers transparent treatment advice in a relaxed and comfortable environment.


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