Tears are produced by the lacrimal gland and accessory lacrimal tissues within the conjunctiva. Eyelid blinking distributes the tears over the eye and propels the tear meniscus along the eyelid margin. The tears enter the puncta at the medial ends of the eyelids, passing into the upper and lower canaliculi and through the common canaliculus into the lacrimal sac. The tears drain from the lacrimal sac into the nasolacrimal duct and, through its lower opening beneath the inferior turbinate, onto the floor of the nose.
Many pathologies can affect one or more areas of this complex system causing different signs and symptoms.
Tears are a prized compound of the eye physiology, when a disease affects its system, patients can suffer severe functional problems as blurring, soreness and stickiness, symptoms that can often affect the daily life of our patients.
Watering sticky eyes can be very troublesome, affect vision and cause sore peri-ocular skin. Tearing is from a blocked tear duct and often requires surgery including modern transnasal endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy (endoscopic DCR), glass bypass tubes (Jones tubes) and syringing and probing in children. Some patients with watering eyes paradoxically lack tears (have dry eyes) and get reflex tearing.